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Applications of recombinant DNA technology

Applications of recombinant DNA technology
Recombinant DNA technology has opened up new opportunities for highly specific manipulation of the genetic materials. This technology broadens the possibilities of gene transferring gene between unrelated organisms and creating novel genetic information by specific alteration of cloned genes. Recombinant DNA has wide applications in the fields of agriculture and medicine and human health which are discussed herewith.

A. Application of genetic engineering in the field of medicine and human health
The recent results of recombinant DNA technology have revolutionized the field of clinical medicine. This has greatly developed the preparation of wide range of vaccines, development of highly specific diagnostic laboratory tests and prenatal diagnosis of human genetic diseases. Some of the products synthesized using genetic engineering are given below:

1. Vaccines – vaccine is preparation, which contains an antigen composed of whole disease causing organisms. Vaccines are used to confer immunity against antigens.
Recombinant DNA technology can be used to clone the gene for the protective antigen protein. A number of vaccines against virus have been developed using this technology. These vaccines are – Hepatitis B, influenza, HIV (AIDS), Herpes, Foot and Mouth Disease, etc.

2. Human growth hormones – Various human growth hormones have been synthesized commercially using Recombinant DNA Technology. This hormone is used in treatment of dwarfism.

3. Insulin – Insulin, a small protein hormone, is used for controlling diabetes. Bacterially produced human insulin using recombinant DNA technology is now available in market. Products of microbial origin are often safer than those derived from traditional sources. Insulin, produced by microbes does not cause allergic reaction.

4. Interferons – interferons are the glycoproteins which have an inhibitory action upon the multiplication of viruses in cells more or less adjacent to the affected ones. They are being used for the treatment of several diseases including a rare form of cancer called hairy cell leukemia. Various interferon are formed such as – a – interferon, ß – interferon and ? – interferon. The bulk of a – interferon is produced by buffy coats (leukocyte pellets), ß – interferon by fibroblasts and ? – interferon by B or T lymphocytes. Japanese companies have succeeded in producing cloned ? – interferon. Interferon are being used for the treatment of several diseases.

5. Monoclonal antibodies – Antibodies are specific proteins produced by the immune system in response to presence of a specific antigen. Monoclonal antibodies can be produced using hybridoma technology.

Hybridoma technology is used to fuse a normal antibody producing lymphocytes (B-cells or plasma cells) with myelonema cells (a kind of tumor cells) giving a hybridoma. Hybridoma has the potential to grow indefinitely in culture and hence can be a source of unending supply of antibody of choice. Since antibody produced by a hybridoma is biochemically pure, it is called monoclonal antibody. Monoclonal antibodies are used to develop effective vaccines against human, animal and plant diseases.

6. Antibiotics – Antibiotics are the chemical substances, produced both by microorganisms and synthetically. They can inhibit the growth of bacteria and others microorganisms and even destroy them. Penicillin is the first antibiotic discovered by Alexander Flemming in 1928 using recombinant technology. Some useful antibiotics being produced on the commercial scale employing biotechnology technique.

7. Diagnosis of infection disease – Modern medical practice depends on laboratory tests for the specific and correct diagnosis of many diseases. Recombinant DNA technology allows for the production of highly specific diagnosis tests.

Some of the common infectious diseases are cholera, small pox, measles meningitis, hepatitis, etc. These diseases lead the serious damage to the human health. Infectious diseases diagnosis mainly depends upon isolation and identification of pathogens, which may take several days. Development of diagnostic kits to identify pathogenic organisms by knowing the organism-specific DNA sequence has provided rapid, specific and correct diagnosis.

In this way, advancement in biotechnology has made easy early, correct and quick diagnosis of infectious diseases. Various diagnostic kits have been developed for AIDS, cancer, foot and mouth diseases, tuberculosis, etc. Different biotechnological tools used in diagnosis of infectious diseases biotechnology tools used in diagnosis of infectious diseases and prenatal diseases are ELISA, PCR based technique, RIA Essays, etc.

1 comments:

Sandara Parker said...

This is interesting I read some interesting topic here, especially the monoclonal antibodies. I read some related topics about antibody from www.creative-biolabs.com. Visit them for more information.. Keep it up.

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Applications of recombinant DNA technology

Sunday, March 7, 2010
Applications of recombinant DNA technology
Recombinant DNA technology has opened up new opportunities for highly specific manipulation of the genetic materials. This technology broadens the possibilities of gene transferring gene between unrelated organisms and creating novel genetic information by specific alteration of cloned genes. Recombinant DNA has wide applications in the fields of agriculture and medicine and human health which are discussed herewith.

A. Application of genetic engineering in the field of medicine and human health
The recent results of recombinant DNA technology have revolutionized the field of clinical medicine. This has greatly developed the preparation of wide range of vaccines, development of highly specific diagnostic laboratory tests and prenatal diagnosis of human genetic diseases. Some of the products synthesized using genetic engineering are given below:

1. Vaccines – vaccine is preparation, which contains an antigen composed of whole disease causing organisms. Vaccines are used to confer immunity against antigens.
Recombinant DNA technology can be used to clone the gene for the protective antigen protein. A number of vaccines against virus have been developed using this technology. These vaccines are – Hepatitis B, influenza, HIV (AIDS), Herpes, Foot and Mouth Disease, etc.

2. Human growth hormones – Various human growth hormones have been synthesized commercially using Recombinant DNA Technology. This hormone is used in treatment of dwarfism.

3. Insulin – Insulin, a small protein hormone, is used for controlling diabetes. Bacterially produced human insulin using recombinant DNA technology is now available in market. Products of microbial origin are often safer than those derived from traditional sources. Insulin, produced by microbes does not cause allergic reaction.

4. Interferons – interferons are the glycoproteins which have an inhibitory action upon the multiplication of viruses in cells more or less adjacent to the affected ones. They are being used for the treatment of several diseases including a rare form of cancer called hairy cell leukemia. Various interferon are formed such as – a – interferon, ß – interferon and ? – interferon. The bulk of a – interferon is produced by buffy coats (leukocyte pellets), ß – interferon by fibroblasts and ? – interferon by B or T lymphocytes. Japanese companies have succeeded in producing cloned ? – interferon. Interferon are being used for the treatment of several diseases.

5. Monoclonal antibodies – Antibodies are specific proteins produced by the immune system in response to presence of a specific antigen. Monoclonal antibodies can be produced using hybridoma technology.

Hybridoma technology is used to fuse a normal antibody producing lymphocytes (B-cells or plasma cells) with myelonema cells (a kind of tumor cells) giving a hybridoma. Hybridoma has the potential to grow indefinitely in culture and hence can be a source of unending supply of antibody of choice. Since antibody produced by a hybridoma is biochemically pure, it is called monoclonal antibody. Monoclonal antibodies are used to develop effective vaccines against human, animal and plant diseases.

6. Antibiotics – Antibiotics are the chemical substances, produced both by microorganisms and synthetically. They can inhibit the growth of bacteria and others microorganisms and even destroy them. Penicillin is the first antibiotic discovered by Alexander Flemming in 1928 using recombinant technology. Some useful antibiotics being produced on the commercial scale employing biotechnology technique.

7. Diagnosis of infection disease – Modern medical practice depends on laboratory tests for the specific and correct diagnosis of many diseases. Recombinant DNA technology allows for the production of highly specific diagnosis tests.

Some of the common infectious diseases are cholera, small pox, measles meningitis, hepatitis, etc. These diseases lead the serious damage to the human health. Infectious diseases diagnosis mainly depends upon isolation and identification of pathogens, which may take several days. Development of diagnostic kits to identify pathogenic organisms by knowing the organism-specific DNA sequence has provided rapid, specific and correct diagnosis.

In this way, advancement in biotechnology has made easy early, correct and quick diagnosis of infectious diseases. Various diagnostic kits have been developed for AIDS, cancer, foot and mouth diseases, tuberculosis, etc. Different biotechnological tools used in diagnosis of infectious diseases biotechnology tools used in diagnosis of infectious diseases and prenatal diseases are ELISA, PCR based technique, RIA Essays, etc.

1 comments:

Sandara Parker said...

This is interesting I read some interesting topic here, especially the monoclonal antibodies. I read some related topics about antibody from www.creative-biolabs.com. Visit them for more information.. Keep it up.

Post a Comment

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